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International Logistics & Supply Chain Management

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International logistics and supply chain plays a crucial role in the management and growth of a company. In all business sectors, supply chain and logistics have a department which all logistic that pertain the company are done. However, company management teams have lagged behind in this area and have lost many opportunities. Lack of proper organization and planning of service providers have caused delays, and disappointment of clients. This paper aims at discussing tourism Ireland. The discussion will rotate around the logistic and supply chains that involve Tourism Ireland.

The paper begins by a comprehensive summary of the company overview, and leadership teams. This includes different departments that are in Tourism Ireland. The roles which different departments  play in managing the company, both locally and internationally. Tourism Ireland has branches in the international market. There are markets that contribute considerably in the tourism industry in Ireland including North America. This will include all the companies and other businesses that work in conjunction with Tourism Ireland, in order for it to meet its target.

Tourism Ireland has products that sell internationally. These are the historical sites, cultural centers, and heritage. The essay highlights these products, and the target customer in the respective markets worldwide. What strategies the company has employed in order to market and promote its products to its clients. In addition, will be the strategies for the future, to widen its business boundaries worldwide.



Tourism Ireland is an agency that started in 1998. The agency began after peace restored in Ireland. As a result, the government began the company so as to promote tourism in the country as one of its economic sectors. It has since thrived well. Ireland is today one of the most toured areas in the world.  The main goal set for tourism Ireland is to raise tourism standard in the island and increase tourism levels in Northern Ireland.

They have maintained effective connections with other service providers so as to have the best opportunities. They also advertise and publicize their products to consumers’ worldwide. This is to accommodate their customers’ needs, and meet the trade expectations. Tourism Ireland offers a numbers of products to its customers. Ireland has an immense display of cultural and historical heritage that attract many people from all over the world . The agency is led by three leaders; each director leads several departments that govern the agency.

i) Director of central marketing: this department carries out a range of function.

a) This department ensures stable communication between the management and its partners. It is responsible in maintaining a mutual relationship with the stakeholders across the island.

b) Finance department: its main function is to coordinate financial issues and provide support to all the tourism Ireland offices. It is also responsible for all the statutory reporting and internal audits.

c) Human resource department: takes care of all the operations that run in the company. It integrates all the markets and offices and monitor performance of workers and all its service providers, both within Ireland and overseas.

ii) Director of markets: the director of markets is in charge of all the markets worldwide. The director is responsible for all the marketing plans in all the offices that are overseas.

iii) Director of corporate services and policy:

a) Northern Ireland and Product Liaison department are responsible for making sure that the company achieves its goals. Its main task is to ensure that the agency is moving forward and growing and to realize the company’s potential worldwide.

b) Strategy Development & Insights department observes the market trends. It key responsibility is to evaluate the consumers’ behavior. These reports are then used by the company, to make new strategies for the market.

c) The Customer Engagement and e-Marketing department maintain a stable relationship with the clients. They ensure products are well marketed to the consumers. They work to maintain constant communication with customers through media and internet.

d) Marketing Communications and Brand Development department are responsible for the advertisement and publicity of the brand name. The department works out and plans the advertising campaign used by the company.

Products and services and the target consumers for this business

Ireland has mainly maximized on tourism turning most of its businesses in to attraction sites. Countryside’s have turned to be leisure landscapes while factories are visitor’s centers, and museum sites. Local events and the different-food types are part of the family attractions in Ireland. These have been well crowned by the high level of humor, hospitality, and relaxed atmosphere expressed by the Irish people.

According to Gillian Bowler , there are nine categories of the products offered by Ireland tourism company. These nine categories must be well marketed and presented to customers to attract them. The Customer Engagement and e-Marketing department ensure that they market the best products that meet the demand of the client. They are usually in complete packages, with prices that are customers-friendly so as to attract the consumer. On the other hand, the client gets to appreciate the product they pay for as it is equivalent to its value. The product categories are:

  • Urban culture: this includes the cities and towns that are in Ireland. The cities are international that have modern aspects that display modern technology. Also in these cities are historical attractions and heritage towns.
  • Gastronomy: restaurants and pubs are open that supply delicious meals, and drinks of all courses. There are also food markets where tourist can buy local food stuffs and recipes to cook.
  • Wellness: this involves health and beauty. This includes health features and fitness.
  • Soft adventure: this category includes all the destinations that a tourist would wish to visit. They include all family attraction sites, angling waters, golf pitches, walking inland and equestrian race courses.
  • Events and arts: this category includes the festivals and events that take place in certain seasons. The gardens and craft outlets that display fantastic art impressions coupled with museum galleries.
  • There are short courses that tourist can enroll in order to learn the Irish culture. These include cookery, arts, and craft.
  • Heritage is one of the products offered in which tourist can learn the Irish language, and learn the history of Ireland through the historical sites.
  • There are working farms and wildlife that people can tour to see the rural culture of Ireland. There are well kept villages, and national parks.
  • There are private houses set aside as the hidden Ireland. In these house tourist can rent, and enjoy the privacy as they visit and relax.



The Strategy Development & Insights departmentis responsible of marketing, publicizing Ireland within its borders and overseas. It is responsible for delivery of Ireland products, both locally and internationally. The agency has branches distributed all over the world. These include Spain, Great Britain, France, Germany, Netherlands, Belgium, Canada, USA, and Australia. Other branches are in Dublin, and Coleraine. Other upcoming markets include India, China, New Zealand, South Africa, Middle East, and Israel. The branches in these countries have played a significant role in the establishment of international market. According to study done on market trends on tourism Ireland in 2009, visitors came from Great Britain, North America, and mainland Europe. Visitors from Great Britain accounted for 52 percent while those from northern America and Europe took 12 percent and 31 percent respectively. The year 2009, tourism Ireland received 6.5 million visitors from overseas markets. About 1.4 million of these visitors came from Northern America .

The agency works in conjunction with other companies like travel trade, carriers, on-line operators, industry partners, and marketers. There are two main boards that are responsible for tourism in Ireland. These are Failte Ireland and Northern Ireland tourist Board. These tow boards market and do product enterprise for the agency both locally and internationally.  These tow boards also look into the market trends and consumers preference patterns in order to capitalize on the consumers available.

Advertisement and campaigns strategy

Tourism Ireland has advertised its products both locally and in the international market. The Marketing Communications and Brand Development department applied different campaign strategies that have gone a long way in publicizing its products and brand name.  They have used marketing, both on-line and off-line marketing. They also used ground activations in social events.  The company has used strategies that are appropriate to the clients they are targeting. These include the use of press and media to advertise .

In 2006, the USA branch began TV campaigns.  In the TV commercials, they showed different features that are in Ireland including historic sites and cultural displays of the people of Ireland. The advertisement was aired specifically during the summer season so as to attract the people that are intending to go for vacation.  Another camping strategy they use was the use of print media and direct marketing . Tourism campaign used attracted headlines on magazines to advertise the products they had to tourist. They also employed radio advertisement in their campaign strategy. Through the radio, they managed to send compelling messages to many listening customers worldwide.

 The same as also applied in on-line marketing. High level of creativity was employed in this campaign. This advertisement targeted the on-line user that had plans of travelling for vacations and holidays. They have 41 websites that operate in 19 different languages . Other clients included the sightseers and culture seekers. They had other advertisement strategies that involved Samsonite stores. Tourism Ireland uses impact posters in all the Samsonite stores together with Ireland branded tags. They also involved press gatherings in several luncheons sponsored by other companies. They also maximized on the culinary campaign. In this campaign, footage of the best chef that chosen was taken coupled with the interview by Joe Byrne.

The St Patrick’s Day campaign was in conjunction with the game that was between New York Nicks and Detroit. During this campaign, tourism Ireland was acknowledged, and their brand applauded. In this campaign, they reached 250 million potential tourists.

Supply chains and logistics involved in tourism Ireland.

An effective supply chain is one that ensures delivery of products to the consumer and raw materials to the manufacturer. The supply chain should maintain a smooth connection between the manufacturer and supplier, the consumer and distributor . Logistics and supply chain management play a significant role in the tourism. The Corporate & Industry Communications department is responsible for communications between partners, service providers, and the management.The supply chain and logistics involve monitoring supplies from the manufacturers, or key providers to delivery to the final consumer. These facilitate the requirement to make a full, and complete package. The service providers are expected to ensure that tourists are enjoying every bit of their vacation by having everything they need at their disposal. That is they offer energy, water, and recycling services. Other services like communication and telephony are also necessary to the clients. Service providers offer transport and accommodation for the tourist that intend to stay for several days .

 These service providers are reselling traveling agencies, tourism service providers, and tour operators. Each of these service providers plays a crucia role that contributes to the success tourism industry. They make sure that they supply what is demanded at the right time. Through the efficiency of these service providers, the agency can make significant progress. The distribution channels can be direct or indirect. That is the distributors and suppliers can be linked directly to the logistics department managers or through another company that does outsourcing for the agency. The main service providers in tourism Ireland are:

  • Housing services suppliers which include all accommodation requirements, hotels, and camping.
  • There are restoration services including the coffee houses, cafeterias, restaurants, and bars.
  • Transportation services including all travelling means. Air travel, rail and train services.
  • Health service providers should provide their service to the clients. Their services include health and wellness, beauty therapy, and SPA centers.
  • There are other providers that supply rental services that are supplementary on reservations for instance in the hidden Ireland.
  • Tour operators come in handy too. These will assist the tourist in their travel plan as they may need to be taken from one place to another.

All these services are offered in the form of tenders. The main company usually seeks sign contract with the service providers. In return, the service providers chosen have to ensure that they meet the demand of the client. The management team has a schedule of delivery in which they counter check the delivery of services by service providers at the right time.

Other service that fall under the supply chain and logistics is client services. These are services given to clients, to inform them of the products available in the market. This is through marketing through the media, physical marketing or internet marketing. Client services will require efficient marketing and publicizing of the product by the service provider. This category may include the consultancy with the client to know their preferences.  At this point, there requires excellent customer service and relations management . Exceptional customer service relation ensures that there are constant orders coming as clients will be pleased by the service they receive.

All the service providers employed by Tourism Ireland should be put on a management plan. This will guarantee order, and successful performance by the providers. The supply chain contains all that service providers according to the tenders given. These include all the shops and distributors involved in the chain. So as, to grantee delivery of services, the management has to have a distinct policy on the management chain. The plan will enable them to determine:

  • Efficiency of the suppliers and distributors of services, both the long and short chain distributors.
  • They will be able to monitor the efficiency in delivery by caterers also know their credibility in the services they offer.
  • This plan can also be useful in the establishment of customer relations.

The elaborative supply chain management of tourism Ireland involves:

  • The relationship and collaboration between providers and the management of the company.
  • The collaboration between the clients’ needs design and preferences when obtaining the products.
  • A detailed list of qualifications which the supply and logistics department head follow to obtain the right candidates for the services they require. 
  • There should be an outline of the client’s request of the products to be supplied. This is necessary especially when obtaining a product for a client .

In conclusion, Tourism Ireland has to make sure that they involve the right service providers that are sure to deliver perfect and relevant services to clients. Through the attractive services that clients receive, the company can be sure to build a reputable-brand name. They will also build an excellent image that will stand competition in the market. In addition, quality services offered to the clients will not only build a good-brand name but will also go a long way in winning the competition in the market.


Globalization is one of the factors which cause growth of tourism worldwide.  The factors that have enhanced globalization include social, economic, and demographic factors .

Identify and analyze the driving forces behind globalization

The reduction of prices of transportation, globalization rate has risen considerably. Low cost of airlines has made trade much easier than in the past. As a result, many entrepreneurs have expanded their businesses outside their primary borders. Tourism markets have also grown significantly in Europe, Australia, Asia, and North America. The rising of social standards have also enhanced globalization. Many people today live higher social standards than in the past. People today appreciate vacations and holidays. They take time to go family outings and events. This in return has made people move from one region to another leading to globalization. Changes in demographic locations have also enhanced globalization. These changes in demography have resulted to changes in lifestyle and living standards. This in return has caused people to migrate from one place to another leading to globalization.

For a tourism company to flourish in the market, it will be beneficial for the management to consider the demographic, economical, and social aspects of the place.

Customer analysis/ market selection, cultural considerations and economic analysis of chosen location  

Tourism Ireland is constantly growing, and new development come up every moment. The agency has plans of extending its boundaries to other countries. This is to expand the business to new markets including Japan, South Africa, Middle East, Australia, and China. In these regions, there is a magnificent display of tradition, culture and heritage. They all have a bountiful harvest of seafood which Ireland market can adapt for business growth. These can be used as attraction sites for tourist from other countries to see. In addition, these countries have advanced well in technology.

For tourism Ireland to ensure constant growth and capability to withstand the rising competition in the market, they need to consider the following points.

i) Ensure they have updated their website often with new products in the market. They should also make the website interactive.

ii) They should also maximize on the use of on-line marketing. This is because internet marketing is on the increase and most tourism companies are capitalizing on the same.

iii) The marketing department should not ignore traditional methods of publicizing their product; they can revise these methods to be relevant to the customers.

iv) The management should also be keen to take note of comments from customers and observers. They should also observe their competitors and market trends. These will help them in making new marketing strategies.

Evaluate the various modes of entry

According to Akhipova & Pustovalova, there are several modes of entry into the tourism market. However, an individual has to factors that will favor him or her before settling on a certain mode of entry. The following are the entry modes.

Exporting is the commonest method of all. This plan is used much often by entrepreneurs when starting tourism   companies. It involves the buying of products and services from another country and exporting them to be sold in another country.  This mode of entry is faster, and gives time for the business owner to learn the market. On the other hand, it is expensive as there are other logistics that have to be considered for instance transport and exportation charges.

Licensing is another entry mode in which the company allows to use its own means of production methods and technology. This is beneficial for companies that are running international businesses. Through this entry, the business is likely to grow faster and expand to become a competitor.

Franchising involves the business owner inviting another company to manufacture the product on behalf of them. The production company is given full responsibility of marketing products and services to the market using the support provided by the franchisor. That is the business owner provides trademarks, trainings, advertisements, and operating systems. This method could be costly for a new company. Joint ventures are beneficial for the company that does not have the capability to involve itself directly with the market. The company can adapt another company to share responsibility in handling the market. This partnership is mostly found in international businesses.

Green venture is another entry mode that is suitable for businesses that have established customers. The company can hire manufacturing equipments, technical team, and use their own technology to produce products without involvement of another company. This method could be expensive for companies that intend to launch business in other countries. This is because the cost of operation and installation could be high.

Manufacturing is a mode that is suitable only for companies that are already established. These can easily establish their own manufacturing systems and install them in the foreign country within their premises. Therefore, the company can produce its products by its own style. In addition, this method is cost effective as the company employs its own know how and staff.

Contract management is suitable for large companies that can hire all services to another company. The only thing that the business owner does is to provide the required competence, and the rest is taken care of by the hired company.

Design of new channel of distribution

 O'Connor, Stephens & Rafferty explain that distribution channels are used by

i) Clients to access information about the company and their products and services.

ii) Service providers also can get to know the supply chain and logistics applied by the agency.

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